Shelter surveys indicate a dramatic increase in usage by women with children, particularly Aboriginal and Black women. A lone parent of two children would receive a shelter allowance of $583 per month, plus a basic needs allowance of $602 per month (depending on the ages of the children), for a maximum total monthly income of $1185 per month; submission of the Ministry of Community and Social Services to Commissions Family Status Consultation and Income Security Advocacy Centre, Social Assistance Rates Fact Sheet, online: , http://www.toronto.ca/socialservices/pdf/singleparentsurvey.pdf>. People with past or present psychiatric illnesses continue to experience extreme marginalization and discrimination in most social spheres, including rental housing accommodation. These racial effects interacted with and were generally exacerbated by gender and class. Life in apartment-type housing inevitably involves some exposure to the noises and activities of one’s neighbours. Statistics Canada reported that in 1997 approximately 50 percent of lone women aged 65 years and older were living in low income circumstances. Noises associated with children’s normal activities should not be treated differently from other types of noise that may be experienced when living in close quarters. Bd.  National Working Group on Women and Housing, Some Facts on Women and Housing in Canada, online: (date accessed: August 30, 2006). Many cases deal with situations where rental housing was denied outright. The personal characteristics may be someone’s actual characteristic or they may be how they are seen. In addition to individual acts of intolerance and racial profiling, Islamophobia leads to viewing Muslims as a greater security threat on an institutional, systemic and societal level.  See also Watson v. Antunes (1998), CHRR Doc. D/389 (B.C.C.H.R.). Adj.) 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