Unlike qualitative research, which is often used in the early stages of a project to examine the aspects such as the scope of a problem and potential solutions, quantitative research is used to develop concrete answers to well-defined questions. In evaluating a research report, one consideration is whether the research problem is suitable for the chosen paradigm. Answers to such questions might be useful in developing effective strategies for reducing stress in patients with cancer. Gamma raysC. Don’t panic ahead of time! The research question is one of the most important parts of your research project, thesis or dissertation. Also, topics are sometimes suggested by global social or political issues of relevance to the health care community (e.g., health disparities). This statement indicates that the group under study is rural parents with children aged 9 to 13 years and the central phenomenon is the parent’s decision making about vaccinations within the context of their spirituality and religious beliefs. Quantitative Survey Questions: Definition. Beck, one of this book’s authors, has developed a strong research program on postpartum depression (PPD). Sometimes the verb is ambiguous: If a purpose statement states that the researcher’s intent is to compare two things, the comparison could involve alternative treatments (using an experimental design) or two preexisting groups such as smokers and nonsmokers (using a nonexperimental design). …, what do you think will happen if one of the major organs of the body does not function well, Learning Task A.1: Vocabulary BuildingDirection: Make a concept definition map for each of the vocabulary terms listed below. For example, “What is the average student debt load of MSW students?” is an important descriptive question. Box 6.1 Draft Problem Statement on Humor and Stress. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Not all research questions are about relationships—some are descriptive. For example, suppose a researcher . D A conceptual definition is more comprehensive than a denotative or dictionary definition and includes associated meanings the word may have. Preliminary findings from a recent small-scale endocrinology study with a healthy sample exposed to a humorous intervention (citation), however, holds promise for further inquiry with immuno-compromised populations. Most research questions concern relationships among variables, and thus, many quantitative research questions could be articulated using a general question template: “In (population), what is the relationship between (independent variable or IV) and (dependent variable or DV)?” Examples of variations include the following: Therapy/treatment/intervention: In (population), what is the effect of (IV: intervention vs. an alternative) on (DV)? ?A. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an education-support intervention delivered in home settings to people with chronic heart failure, in terms of their functional status, self-efficacy, quality of life, and self-care ability (Clark et al., 2015). Water D. alcohol vavapor11. The research question also has to align with a methodology (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) as well as with a specific design that is supported by the methodology. Question: Is the functional dependence level (I) of renal transplant recipients (P) related to their rate of recovery (O)? Research questions are, in some cases, direct rewordings of statements of purpose, phrased interrogatively rather than declaratively, as in the following example: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between the functional dependence level of renal transplant recipients and their rate of recovery. Quantitative researchers also use verbs to communicate the nature of the inquiry. In Chapter 2, we discussed clinical foreground questions to guide an EBP inquiry. This second draft builds a more compelling argument for new research: Millions of people are affected by cancer, and the disease has adverse consequences not only for patients and their families but also for society. Within broad topic areas are many possible research problems. The researchers found that women in the DHA experimental group had fewer symptoms of PPD compared to women who did not receive the DHA intervention (Judge et al., 2014). Describe the process of developing and refining a research problem, Distinguish the functions and forms of statements of purpose and research questions for quantitative and qualitative studies, Describe the function and characteristics of research hypotheses, Critique statements of purpose, research questions, and hypotheses in research reports with respect to their placement, clarity, wording, and significance. Visible LightD. Research questions are, in some cases, direct rewordings of statements of purpose, phrased interrogatively rather than declaratively, as in the following example: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between the functional dependence level of renal transplant recipients and their rate of recovery. This chapter discusses research problems and research questions. Concrete example of clearly defined research question - 5688921 dotollo2001 is waiting for your help. Research Questions. The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. pineapple juiceto Rubbing alcohol is a solution, what is Published on April 18, 2019 by Shona McCombes. In this section, we illustrate various terms using the topic side effects of chemotherapy. Proposed solution: How will the new study contribute to the solution of the problem? The literature suggested that DHA might play a role in reducing the severity of PPD, and so these researchers collaborated in a project to test the effectiveness of dietary supplements of DHA during pregnancy on the incidence and severity of PPD. This discussion is a: a. conceptual definition. Operationalize concepts construct instruments 9. Relative DatingD. Quantitative descriptive questions are arguably the easiest types of questions to formulate. Choosing a Research Instrument 1. Quantitative studies usually involve concepts that are well developed and for which methods of measurement have been (or can be) developed. Research reports rarely indicate the source of researchers’ inspiration for a study, but a variety of explicit sources can fuel their curiosity, such as nurses’ clinical experience and readings in the nursing literature. A variety of alternative/complementary therapies have been developed in an effort to decrease the harmful effects of cancer-related stress on psychological and physiological functioning, and resources devoted to these therapies (money and staff) have increased in recent years (citations). A good problem statement is a declaration of what it is that is problematic, what it is that “needs fixing,” or what it is that is poorly understood. Visible LightC. A clearly defined research question consists of (where appropriate) identification of study participants, intervention (or exposure) along with a comparator, and outcomes. This research questions serve as the backbone of the research. A well-defined and specific research question is more likely to ... to focus the study plan.3In a study, the primary research question should be clearly stated at the end of the intro- ... the population of interest on the basis of a random sample taken from that population. In a quantitative study, a statement of purpose identifies the key study variables and their possible interrelationships as well as the population of interest (i.e., all the PICO elements). It shows the relation and comparison between the variables. InfraredB. For example, the use of humor has been recommended as a therapeutic device to improve quality of life, decrease stress, and perhaps improve immune functioning (citations), but the evidence to justify its advocacy is scant. A variety of alternative/complementary therapies have been developed in an effort to decrease the harmful effects of cancer-related stress on psychological and physiological functioning, and resources devoted to these therapies (money and staff) have increased in recent years. Researchers often begin with interests in a broad topic area and then develop a more specific researchable problem. A study whose purpose is to examine or explore the relationship between two variables is more likely to involve a nonexperimental design. This may direct the nurse to look at the literature on nursing behaviors and ethnicity, or it may lead to a discussion with peers. The key study variables were the patients’ exposure or nonexposure to the special intervention (the independent variable encompassing the I and C components) and the patient’s functional status, self-efficacy, quality of life, and self-care ability (the dependent variables or Os). Formulate the research questions 6. For example, “What is the average student debt load of MSW students?” is a descriptive question—and an important one. The first sentence of a research report is often the starting point of a problem statement. X-ray24.4. ?A- Gasc. Sizeable numbers of patients who receive a cancer diagnosis describe feelings of uncertainty, fear, anger, and loss of control (citations). Examples of research topics are claustrophobia during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests and pain management for sickle cell disease. The output of quantitative research is usually in the form of graphs, statistical data, tables, and percentages, etc. Ultraviolet waveB. Qualitative methods would not be well suited to comparing levels of depression among those with and without chronic illness, but they would be ideal for exploring the meaning of depression among chronically ill people. Research papers are source-based explanations of a topic, event, or phenomenon. Statements of purpose in qualitative studies also may “encode” the tradition of inquiry through certain terms or “buzz words” associated with those traditions, as follows: Grounded theory: processes; social structures; social interactions, Phenomenological studies: experience; lived experience; meaning; essence, Ethnographic studies: culture; roles; lifeways; cultural behavior. Interpersonal relationships, psychological functioning, and role performance have all been found to suffer following cancer diagnosis and treatment. The success of research hinges on (1) how clearly we conceptualize and (2) how well others understand the concepts we use. We begin by clarifying some terms. Research Questions in Quantitative Studies. Mixed methods research design. AlcoholB. clearly defined research question, 9. which is the example of heterogeneousMIXTUREC.A HALO- Halo sugarseal solutionBosea waterD. Research questions, purpose statements, or hypotheses appear later in the introduction. Quantitative Research involves the use of computational, statistical, and mathematical tools to derive results. Research questions should be defined in advance to allow identification of the appropriate study design, and they should be documented in a protocol before commencing the study. Problem statements for a qualitative study similarly express the nature of the problem, its context, its scope, and information needed to address it. Example of a problem source for a quantitative study. Probably the easiest questions to think of are quantitative descriptive questions. Visible LightD. CHapteR 2 research Questions, hypotheses, and clinical Questions 31 Defining the Research Question Brainstorming with teachers, advisors, or colleagues may provide valuable feedback that helps the researcher focus on a specific research question area. To write research questions that integrate the variables of the study, you should be able to define what is a variable.If this term is already quite familiar to you, and you are confident in your understanding, you may read the rest of this post. The following are the quantitative research questions. 6. or What characteristics do patients with complaints share? The purpose statement establishes the general direction of the inquiry and captures the study’s substance. For example, when we survey people on the question of customer loyalty, the questions we use need to tap faithfully the attitudes of the participants. These terms are not always consistently defined in research textbooks. COMMUNICATING RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND QUESTIONS. * Numerous studies have documented that a diagnosis of cancer is associated with high levels of stress. Quantitative descriptive questions The type of research you are conducting will impact the research question that you ask. Left hemis, ere C. CerebellumD. qualitative research or quantitative research. Each year, more than 1 million people are diagnosed with cancer, which remains one of the top causes of death among both men and women (reference citations). (citations). For example, the use of humor has been recommended as a therapeutic device to improve quality of life, decrease stress, and perhaps improve immune functioning, but the evidence to justify its advocacy is scant. Which cerebral hemisphere controls the right side of the body?A. Research is the most widely used tool to increase and brush-up the stock of knowledge about something and someone. Researchers begin with a topic on which to focus. These questions stem from the same problem, yet each would be studied differently; for example, some suggest a qualitative approach, and others suggest a quantitative one. InfraredC. Most research reports also present either a statement of purpose, research questions, or hypotheses, and often, combinations of these three elements are included. The general topic is differences in patients’ complaints about pain medications. InfraredB. For example, a problem statement for a phenomenological study might note the need to know more about people’s experiences or meanings they attribute to those experiences. Writing a research paper may seem challenging, even though it is a substantial part of everyday student life. X-ray, 1-8 what are the challenges of globalization, what system provide shape and movement to your body, what are the factors to considering in mechanical weathering?, . The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of religiosity and spirituality on rural parents’ decision to vaccinate their 9- to 13-year-old children against human papillomavirus (HPV) (Thomas et al., 2015). Table 6.1 presents a simplified problem statement related to the topic of side effects of chemotherapy. However, many of these therapies have not been carefully evaluated to assess their efficacy, safety, or cost-effectiveness. Select a topic 2. Does the number of patient complaints increase when patients are of dissimilar ethnic backgrounds as opposed to when they are of the same ethnic background as nurses? Formulating a quantitative research question can often be a difficult task. The verbs in a purpose statement should connote objectivity. These efforts may result in several research questions, such as the following: What is the nature of patient complaints among patients of different ethnic backgrounds? These aspects of the problem would be difficult to measure. Right hemisphere B. Box 6.2 illustrates how the problem statement could be made stronger by adding information about scope (component 3), long-term consequences (component 4), and possible solutions (component 6). A qualitative researcher would be more interested in understanding the essence of patients’ complaints, patients’ experience of frustration, or the process by which the problem got resolved. Researchers often communicate information about their approach through their choice of verbs. Formulate a thesis statement 3. The structured way of collection and analysis of the data which is obtained from the different sources involving the use of statistics, computational and mathematical tools in order to derive the results is known as Quantitative research. However, many of these therapies have not been carefully evaluated to assess their efficacy, safety, or cost-effectiveness. Let's look at examples of research questions and sample research questions in general. When composing a research question, a researcher needs to determine if they want to describe data, compare differences among groups, assess a relationship, or determine if … Quantitative research focuses on larger groups. Box 6.2 Some Possible Improvements to Problem Statement on Humor and Stress. Quantitative research questions are generally used to set the scene for an entire study or industry report. The process of developing your research question follows several steps: Choose a broad topic; Do some preliminary reading to find out about topical debates and issues; Narrow down a specific niche that you want to focus on; Identify a practical or theoretical research problem that you will address; When you have a clearly-defined problem, you … X-rayC 3. X-rayA 2. …, t lies beyond the red end and the visible light?A. Some research problems are better suited to qualitative versus quantitative inquiry. The two methodologies of research, known as qualitative and quantitative research, explore topics with different objectives. Problem identification: What is wrong with the current situation? And if you like statistics and things connected with them, then this topic is for you. HOW-TO-TELL TIP How can you tell a problem statement? Development and Refinement of Research Problems. There are various categories of primary quantitative research. Theories from nursing and other disciplines sometimes suggest a research problem. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Add your answer and earn points. The nurse might ask, What accounts for this discrepancy? InfraredD. For quantitative business research it is imperative that the research questions used allow your respondents to answer succinctly. At the most basic level, research topics originate with researchers’ interests. For example, suppose a hospital nurse begins to wonder why some patients complain about having to wait for pain medication when certain nurses are assigned to them. …, tral box. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. Where do ideas for research problems come from? 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