In this letter to a friend, Wellington merchant and Jewish congregation leader Abraham Hort gives a graphic description of the massive earthquake that struck Wairarapa and Wellington in January 1855. This earthquake was the second major earthquake that Wellington settlers had experienced. Measuring 8.2, it was New Zealand's most powerful earthquake and was caused by movement on the Wairarapa Fault: On Tuesday 23rd of January 1855, as the sky slowly darkened to twilight at the end of a summer's day, Wellington was preparing to go to bed. This view of Wellington, drawn about 1852, shows the town as it developed after the 1848 earthquake. Cite This For Me. The earthquake was caused by movement along at least 140 kilometres of the Wairarapa Fault, along the eastern edge of the Rimutaka Range. However, it took only 25–30 years for awareness of building safety to fade. On 23 January 1855 the region was hit by the strongest earthquake recorded in New Zealand, which reached Magnitude 8.2 on the Richter Scale. Early Wellington Earthquake, 1855. Location map showing epicenter of 1855 Wairarapa earthquake. Cite This For Me. 1855 Wellington Earthquake - History bibliographies - in Harvard style . The next stranded beach, another metres higher, seems to have been uplifted about 2850 BCE (4800 BP), with an even earlier uplift of 7 metres in about 4850 BCE (6800 BP). The earthquakes in this timeline have all caused structural damage, and often fatalities. After the 1848 Marlborough earthquake, many Wellington buildings had been rebuilt in wood. 1855: Earthquake alters Wellington landscape. For the first day after the main quake, as far away as New Plymouth an alm… • D. W. Rodgers, T. A. On 23 Jan 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck here, killing between 5-9 people in the Wairarapa and Wellington. Across Cook Strait, the seaward end of the Wairau valley subsided over a metre. Contents [Denton, Frank J, 1869-1963. The newly exposed strip of shoreline between Wellington and the Hutt Valley offered a safe road and railway route – parts of the coastal road had previously been impassable at high tide. The tsunami caused by the 1855 earthquake had several sources. The Government Offices, which housed the Wellington Provincial Government, were completely demolished. By the beginning of the 20th century the earthquake hazard was largely discounted, and between 1913 and 1926 the New Zealand Official Yearbook included the comment that ‘earthquakes in New Zealand are rather a matter of scientific interest than a subject for alarm’. #1 1855 Wairarapa earthquake Unclassified Updated: 2019-07-21 The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. The local council chambers and adjoining government offices, both two-storey wooden buildings, collapsed. In Wellington Harbour, the 1855 earthquake raised the seabed by about a metre-and-a-half, making existing jetties useless. … People fled outdoors, where they remained for the night in tents and makeshift beds, as incessant aftershocks rocked the area – one person counted 250 in the first 11 hours. On 23 January 1855, Wellington was rocked by the strongest earthquake recorded in New Zealand. In 1855 Wellington had a population of approximately 6,000 people. Ref #: 1/2-003924-G Collection of negatives, prints and albums PAColl-3043] Landslip caused by earthquake near Wellington, New Zealand. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. In 1855 a magnitude 8.2 earthquake – the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand – rocked the southern part of the North Island. Four people were killed and the landscape of the Wellington region was changed significantly. The largest recorded earthquake to have hit New Zealand rocked Wellington and the Wairarapa at 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855. In: Journal of Geophysical Research. Shortly after 9 p.m. a violent earthquake began; in Wellington the main shock lasted for at least 50 seconds. Three people had died when a wall collapsed onto them. Change style powered by CSL. The old Government Buildings, opened in 1876, is one of the most impressive wooden structures of this period, with a facade imitating a classical European stone building. The aftershocks would continue for months. On this day in 1855, New Zealand experienced it's largest earthquake ever recorded. The earthquake hit early morning on Saturday 2 January 2021 at 4:57 am local time at a shallow depth of 24 km. 24 May, 2020 10:13 PM 9 minutes to read. The earthquake measured 8.2 on the Richter scale and was centred in the south-west Wairarapa along the Wairarapa Fault, about 25 kilometres from Wellington. Read more. The earthquake raised the Wellington coastline by up to 1.5 metres. In 1855, the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake uplifted the northwestern side of … This 1860 photograph looks south along Wellington’s Lambton Quay, with the uplifted 1855 beach. Vol. The 1855 earthquake was initiated on the interface between the Pacific and Australian Plates at a depth of 25 km below Cook Strait close to Wel­lington when one of these fault lines ruptured, releas­ing a thousand times more energy than the Hiroshima atomic bomb—energy that travelled outwards and up­wards at speeds reaching six kilometres per second. The uplift of the region helped drain the swampy lower reaches of the Hutt Valley. Shortly after 9 p.m. a violent earthquake began; in Wellington the main shock lasted for at least 50 seconds. The southern end of the Remutaka Range rose by over 6 metres, but the uplift decreased westward to near zero along the west coast of the Wellington peninsula. The earthquake was one of the main reasons why houses in Wellington were mostly rebuilt in timber rather than brick. NZ Herald. The number of fatalities caused by the earthquake is estimated at between five and nine. The 1888 North Canterbury earthquake, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence, Quoted in Rodney Grapes and Gaye Downes, ‘The 1855 Wairarapa, New Zealand, earthquake – analysis of historical data.’. It was the end of a holiday weekend celebrating this milestone and most people were at home relaxing. Two people died in a fissure in the Manawatū. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. This earthquake was situated along the Wairarapa Fault and because of this it caused more faulting and uplift in the area situated around Wellington. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. The 1855 earthquake damaged many of these, including the jail and the bank. The first large earthquake that they had felt had taken place on 16 October 1848, during a strong gale and heavy rain. Change style powered by CSL. Large landslips had swept down the sides of the Rimutaka Ranges, and there were gaping fissures (cracks) in the Wairarapa Plain, some up to 5 metres deep. In the Wairarapa, several Māori (their reported number varies from two to six), were killed when a whare collapsed. The 8.2 earthquake was massive, heaving the whole region like a quilt being shaken. January 1855… The earthquake was produced by a rupture along the northeast-trending buried fault, probably the Napier-Hawke’s Bay Fault. This was the only death in Wellington from the earthquake. In the Hutt Valley, slips blocked roads and large fissures opened up in the ground. Commercial re-use may be allowed on request. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. They were later fully drained and the reclaimed land was built on. People fled outdoors, where they remained for the night in tents and makeshift beds, as incessant aftershocks rocked the area – one person counted 250 in the first 11 hours. The earthquake also drained notoriously swampy areas in the Hutt Valley and … Masonry construction gradually returned, encouraged by city council regulations for fire resistance. At Wellington we found the whole town in confusion. A result of this newly-raised land was that the shipping basin planned for the city was abandoned and the land was used for a cricket ground instead - the Basin Reserve. Jul 20, 2015 - This 1860 photograph looks south along Wellington’s Lambton Quay, with the uplifted 1855 beach. The date, location, magnitude and major consequences are outlined. #1 1855 Wairarapa earthquake Unclassified Updated: 2019-07-21 The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. A magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck on the Wairarapa fault at only 30km deep, causing widespread damage. The first large earthquake that they had felt had taken place on 16 October 18… The commander of the Pandora, anchored in the harbour, reported: ‘for eight hours … the tide approached and receded from the shore every 20 minutes, rising from eight to ten feet and receding four feet lower than at spring tide.’ 1. BiblioWeb: app05 Version 3.26.0 Last updated 2021/01/20 06:54, After the Paint n’ Pen art exhibition, local…, #PopUpPenguins are in Christchurch! Brick houses destroyed in the 1848 quake had been replaced by timber houses, but there were still some brick buildings which suffered damage in 1855. Eileen McSaveney, 'Historic earthquakes - The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/historic-earthquakes/page-3 (accessed 24 January 2021), Story by Eileen McSaveney, published 12 Jun 2006, reviewed & revised 28 Mar 2011, updated 1 Nov 2017. Caused by movement along a fault in Palliser Bay, it altered the landscape of the Wellington region and affected its subsequent urban development. Auch wird das Erdbeben als das bisher schwerste Erdbeben in der Geschichte Neuseelands seit Beginn der Aufzeichnungen im Jahre 1840[1] … On 23 January 1855, Wellington was struck by a earthquake at 9.11 pm, estimated to be 8 on the Richter scale. Figure 1. In 1855, an earthquake struck the Wellington Region, permanently altering its landscape. One was a two-storey hotel which collapsed, killing the owner. Wellington, Central North Island earthquake: 5.8 magnitude quake near Levin shakes North Island. If you are still seeing this message and JavaScript is enabled in your browser then please either contact the library or fill in our technical support form and we will try to fix the problem. The violent shake was felt as far away as Canterbury. Ten days later a 7.3 aftershock caused further damage. The jetties have been built further out to sea so that ships could be unloaded. Lambton Quay, Wellington, looking south from Brandon's Corner 1860. Surprisingly few people were injured. Popular AMA APA (6th edition) APA (7th edition) Chicago (17th edition, author-date) Harvard IEEE ISO 690 MHRA (3rd edition) MLA (8th edition) OSCOLA Turabian (9th edition) Vancouver. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. The tsunami most affected the Cook Strait region, but the effects of the tsunami were observed at least as far north as Waikawa Beach, where fish were deposited above high water mark, and as far south as the Clarence River mouth and possibly Kaikoura. On this day in 1855, New Zealand experienced it's largest earthquake ever recorded. Charles Emilius Gold, Watercolour, Alexander Turnbull Library, Reference: B-103-016 Published in the Wellingtonian 30 September 2010 (Earlier that September Canterbury was hit by the devastating 7.1 magnitude earthquake) At 9.17pm on Wednesday, 23 January, 1855, Wellington and surrounding regions were shaken by New Zealand’s biggest-ever earthquake. The canyon starts just 10 kilometres off Wellington's coast and plunges to depths of 3km south of Cape Palliser. It was realised that the wooden buildings built after the 1848 earthquake had stood up to the shaking better than other constructions. For the first day after the main quake, as far away as New Plymouth an almost continuous vibration could be felt by people sitting, or when leaning against walls. 36 relations. In the harbour, the water washed in and out in huge waves every twenty minutes by up to several metres, flooding some of the houses on the beach front. commentary 1855 earthquake, Basin Reserve, cricket, lagoon, Lambton Quay, uplift, Wellington, Wellington Harbour Waitangi Park – an urban wetland recreated December 12, 2010 May 20, 2011 BFF editorial team Leave a comment The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault to the north and east of Wellington. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings, and a 36-hour fire in central Napier which gutted almost 11 blocks. The sole casualty in Wellington was Baron von Alzdorf, who died when a brick chimney in his hotel collapsed. Commerce lost but sports gained when a low-lying area known as the Basin Reserve, originally proposed as a shipping basin, instead became Wellington’s cricket grounds. Please ensure that you have JavaScript enabled in your browser. For example, red squares in our results show the areas in Wellington likely to have between 20 and 30 ‘severely’ damaged buildings caused by an earthquake with the same parameters as … Painting of landslip caused by 1855 earthquake near Wellington (Alexander Turnbull Library, B-103-016) The magnitude 8.2 earthquake had a profound impact on the development of Wellington city. The Last Big One - 1855 - 8.2. New Zealand's Earthquake Commission and Geological Survey (GeoNet) reported a magnitude 4.2 quake in New Zealand near Upper Hutt, Upper Hutt City, Wellington, only 5 minutes ago. While memories of the 1848 and 1855 earthquakes were fresh, most of the new buildings in Wellington were constructed of wood. The violent shake was felt as far away as Canterbury. 111, B12408, 2006 (englisch). Extent of shaking, Wairarapa earthquake, 23 January 1855, Eyewitness account of the 1855 earthquake, Wellington shoreline after the 1855 earthquake. Land raised from the harbour – along with additional reclamations – formed much of modern Wellington’s central business district. The earthquake measured 8.2 on the Richter scale and was centred in the south-west Wairarapa along the Wairarapa Fault, about 25 kilometres from Wellington. The shock from this earthquake was felt across the whole island of New Zealand and caused a lot of destruction in the nearby capital of Wellington. 1855 earthquake Moon over Paekakariki Hill. Blocks of the city’s central business district now occupy land that was below sea level before 1855. 1855 Wellington Earthquake - History bibliographies - in Harvard style . Next, because Wellington’s harbour was raised more on the eastern than on the western side, the harbour waters moved toward the lower side, flooding Lambton Quay. Land also shifted over 18 metres horizontally along the Wairarapa Fault. The 8.2 magnitude quake was centred 25 kilometres from the city - it was felt as far away as Canterbury in the South Island. Numerous landslides scarred the slopes of the Rimutaka Range. The evening of 23 January 1855 was the end of a two-day holiday, the 15th anniversary of Wellington’s founding. A tsunami with waves up to 10 metres high was generated in Cook Strait, probably by submarine uplift. When Wellington was rebuilt the main commercial buildings in the city were built of brick because of the fire risk of a wooden building, but most of the homes were rebuilt in timber. The earthquake caused widespread damage in Wellington. ... and may have been caused by the magnitude 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake in 1855." The evening of 23 January 1855 was the end of a two-day holiday, the 15th anniversary of Wellington’s founding. Though the 1855 earthquake was the most dramatic earthquake ever recorded in Wellington, many larger (and smaller) quakes have had a role in shaping our geography, our building practices, the lay-out of our city, and our social history. It appears that almost all the buildings were made of wood. In the Wairarapa three people died when a house collapsed on them. The damage from the earthquake was extensive with timber houses as well as brick buildings collapsing. The “Basin Reserve” sports ground in central Wellington is a well-known and unavoidable landmark, as a convergence point for four major roads which circle around its perimeter, as well as for fans of “the gentile … The January–February 1855 earthquakes occurred on the Wairarapa, Wharekauhau, Nicholson Bank, Vernon, Awatere and Needles faults. The aftershocks would continue for months. © Crown Copyright. However, single-storey wooden houses survived: although many were damaged by falling brick chimneys, or shifted on their foundations, few collapsed. The 9:32pm, 23 January 1855 M 8.2 Wairarapa earthquake generated New Zealand’s largest historical locally-generated tsunami. Das Wairarapa-Erdbeben von 1855 war für Wellington in Neuseeland das bisher folgenschwerste Erdbeben und wird auf Grund der Nähe des Epizentrums und der Auswirkungen des Bebens auf die Stadt häufig auch als Wellington-Erdbeben bezeichnet. A magnitude 8.2 earthquake struck on the Wairarapa fault at only 30km deep, causing widespread damage. The The largest recorded earthquake to have hit New Zealand rocked Wellington and the Wairarapa at 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855. Wellington was sited on the best harbour in the south­ern North Island and was beginning to come into its own as a merchant and trading centre. That earthquake had been centred in the Wairau Valley, in Marlborough, and had measured 7.1 on the Richter scale. iv The 1855 Wairarapa Earthquake Symposium Friday 9 September (Soundings Theatre, Level 2) Topic Speaker Organisation Start Duration Impact on humans and the built environment Humans The 1855 earthquake: societal impact and response in Wellington Hamish Campbell GNS 0840 20 Individuals' response to natural hazard events John McClure Victoria The only impediment was the insistent earth tremors. About 5,000 square kilometres of land west of the fault was lifted up and tilted. Popular AMA APA (6th edition) APA (7th edition) Chicago (17th edition, author-date) Harvard IEEE ISO 690 MHRA (3rd edition) MLA (8th edition) OSCOLA Turabian (9th edition) Vancouver. Previous Section | Table of Contents | Up | Next Section. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, … The second to lowest (i.e. The 1929 Arthur’s Pass and Murchison earthquakes, The 2010 Canterbury (Darfield) earthquake, Personal stories of the 2010–11 Canterbury earthquakes, Personal stories of earthquakes since 1942, Next: Page 4. Many jetties in Wellington Harbour became unusable, but there were also beneficial effects. All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. Swamps partly dried out as a result of the quake. These waves entered Wellington Harbour and washed back and forth. Approximately four-fifths of the chimneys in Wellington fell down. Land raised from the harbour – along with additional reclamations – formed much of modern Wellington’s central business district. All text licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence unless otherwise stated. The force of the earthquake did not seem to be deadened by the water, and our little vessel trembled like a leaf. The jetties have been built further out to sea so that ships could be unloaded. In 1855 Wellington had only been settled for 15 years and was a relatively young, but busy, town. At 9:11pm, on 23 January 1855, the southern part of the North Island was struck by a magnitude 8.2 earthquake, the most powerful ever recorded in New Zealand. Water first spilled onto the land because the land west of the Wairarapa Fault shifted abruptly north-east. the beach uplifted during the 1855 earthquake) is about 9 metres higher (that is, 16 metres above sea level) occurred about 250 BCE (2200 BP). (Source: Mikenorton) Wellington, at the southern tip of North Island, was declared a city in 1840, one year after the first Europeans arrived to purchase land; the city was declared New Zealand’s capital in 1865. On January 23 rd 1855, an 8.2 magnitude earthquake st ruck Wairarapa in New Zealand’s North Island. The quake was felt across most of the country, with the most severe impacts occuring in Wellington and surrounding areas. The earthquake caused a tsunami in Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour; some buildings on Lambton Quay near the shoreline were flooded by tsunami waves. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. At the time, Wellington was being recommended as the site for the capital, and despite this disaster, it continued to be preferred because of its harbour and geographically central location. This view of Wellington, drawn about 1852, shows the town as it developed after the 1848 earthquake. The pattern of faulting suggests the existence of distinct seismogenic zones across Cook Strait, within which mainshock Find out…, Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 27 January 1855 via, Caught in the crunch: earthquakes and volcanoes in New Zealand, Christchurch City Libraries' Terms of Use and Privacy Policy, Search our catalogue for information about the. The quake was felt across most of the country, with the most severe impacts occuring in Wellington and surrounding areas. It appears that almost all the buildings were made of wood. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. Some new commercial premises, however, were constructed of brick because of fire risk. The uplift created a new fringe of beach and rock platforms along the Wellington coast. Wairarapa earthquake, 1855. This earthquake was the second major earthquake that Wellington settlers had experienced. It had been followed by several aftershocks, causing severe damage in Wellington. This brief chronology lists selected earthquakes in New Zealand since the most powerful recorded earthquake here in 1855. Painting of landslip caused by 1855 earthquake near Wellington (Alexander Turnbull Library, B-103-016) The magnitude 8.2 earthquake had a profound impact on the development of Wellington city. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. Four people died (one in Wellington, three in the Wairarapa). Little: World’s largest coseismic strike-slip offset: The 1855 rupture of the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand, and implications for displacement/length scaling of continental earthquakes. Many of these, including the jail and the landscape of the country, with most. 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