Use of a thoracic, pelvic and femoral strap decreased quadriceps strength when compared to minimal stabilization i.e. Other aspects of assessment that should be performed when dealing with loss of knee extension range of motion sho… You can assess your knee flexion and extension at home using a goniometer or a phone app meant to simulate a goniometer. As the knee flexed, the patella flexed by 0.7 times the tibiofemoral flexion angle. Lack of Full Knee Extension (ACL Repair Cases) There is a lot of published research regarding an extension deficit and ACL repair. Materials: Sturdy chair or counter, ankle weights. Please call for an appointment before visiting: Mail Processing Center: P.O. This would mean that the subject demonstrated significant strength reduction (over 20%), pain (modified Borg scale over 0) but no break phenomenon. It must be stressed that normal isokinetic test results do not exclude meniscal pathology. THE SCREW-HOME MECHANISM REVERSES DURING KNEE FLEXION Cincinnati, OH: 300 E Business Way, Suite 200, Summit Woods Corporate Center, Cincinnati, OH, 45241 In people with a flexion deformity, AROM of one or both knees is reduced. Nordgren et al (1983) also performed tests at low velocities (6, 12 and 60 degrees/second). conspicuous peak in the curve. Flexion extension imbalance. Assessing and treating loss of knee extension range of motion is an important component of rehabilitation following any knee surgery. However, there is another rating principle to keep in mind. A normal range of motion for the knee is 0 to 140 degrees. Below we can see an elite 1500m runner (center) with good knee flexion as she first contacts the ground. Of all the disabilities listed on the VA’s Schedule for Rating Disabilities, the ratings involving the knee are one of the most difficult for veterans to understand – and for…. Supine testing assumes that minimal pelvic and femoral rotation will occur will occur as the chair and body act as distal stabilizers of the thigh, however, the subject will often shift the pelvis (hip hitching) to gain a better leaver advantage. After knee replacement surgery, you and your care team will likely zero-in on one crucial measurement during ReHab: range of motion. The knee performs various actions like flexion, extension, and bending. These figures illustrate the top of the right tibial plateau as we look down on it during knee motion. Pain and load, however, showed strong correlations (load is the product of the magnitude of the moment and the period of time of exposure). In fact muscle conditioning at velocities around 450 degrees/second may still constitute a genuine stimulus to the muscle, as has been recommended by Mangine and Noyes (1992). In this article, we shall examine the anatomy of the knee joint – its articulating surfaces, ligaments and neurovascular supply. The ACL is unable to control the movement and by reflex turns off the quadriceps temporarily. Prior Employment: - Flexion of knee - Extension of hip - Medial rotation of tibia (esp. The knee permits flexion and extension about a virtual transverse axis, as well as a slight medial and lateral rotation about the axis of the lower leg in the flexed position. (1991b). This is the least used position. In our example M = the maximum pre break force and L = the lowest recorded force during break. For flexion try to be between 75-90 degrees of flexion. With ACL deficiency there are often three rapid spikes in the early part of the hamstring curve (see below) I hypothesise that this is due to reflex inhibition. § 4.14) states that a veteran cannot be compensated more than once for the same disability or the same manifestation of that disability. Patello Femoral Joint (anterior knee pain): One of the most common problems at the knee is what has loosely been described as anterior knee pain. The main movement of the knee is flexion - extension. We recently discussed how loss of knee extension range of motion may be one of the biggest factors associated with the development of osteoarthritis following ACL reconstruction. Eccentric contractions demonstrate this more readily than concentric contractions. Borges (1989) chose an extremely low value of 12 degrees/second for one of the criterion velocities, whilst at the other end of the spectrum Ghena et al (1991) and Hall and Roofner (1991) tested subjects at velocities as high as 500 degrees/second. The ability to fully extend the knee equal to the other side is usually one of the most important early goals in knee rehab. Patello Femoral Joint (PFJ) & Isokinetics. They found that after three weeks of isokinetic exercise the torque curve of the quadriceps concentrically improved to such a degree that it was noticeable to the human eye. If you find it hard to set the alignment correctly with the knee bent try doing it with it straight this often helps. Melbourne, FL: 100 Rialto Place, Suite 700 Melbourne, FL 32901 This appears to be an oversight on this machine. Do this workout with the knee extension to strengthen the quadriceps and hamstring muscles that work together. Because the terms extension and flexion are functions of the knee joint. Unfortunately there remains no reliable way of testing the balance between the VM and VL. Today we are going to discuss one particular set of ratings for limitation of motion of the knee – flexion and extension. Adapted from Chan an Maffulli (1996). If these findings had been made in 1985 by Elton et al it could be speculated that validation of isokinetic testing over arthroscopy for the diagnosis of chondro malacia patellae would have been made. These results were elaborated upon by Bohannon (1986) when he tested various gripping devices compared to only gripping the table and found massive differences. Education: The greatest change in muscular strength tends to occur between 30 degrees/second and 120 degrees/second. Isokinetic tests can be used to diagnose PFJ dysfunction and monitor treatment progress. She was a Notes and Comments Editor of the Florida State University Law Review and was awarded the Distinguished Pro Bono Service Award for exceeding pro bono graduation requirements. Many authors have stressed the importance of an imbalance between the moments generated by the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis. Figure 2: Flexion and Extension of Shoulder, Knee, and Neck. EMG could be considered to be semi-quantitative and there are thousands of studies examining the EMG ratio between VL and VM. We could speculate that the load is not responsible of the break phenomenon which could only leave the velocity of movement responsible. This is easily confused with medial and lateral rotation, but the difference … Your gastrocnemius, the main calf muscle, runs behind your knee from your lower femur to your achilles tendon. It is important to note that the veteran’s limitation of motion does not need to be at the 0 percent rating level (60 degrees of flexion or 5 degrees of extension), but there does need to be some limitation of movement confirmed by objective evidence. To check the alignment simply straighten and bend the knee and make sure that the attachment on the calf does not move up and down the shin (this can cause friction burns and does not allow the knee to rotate correctly). Knee Flexion Mobility Closing Thoughts Gaining mobility – flexion or extension – after surgery is one of the most important goals. She then moved to Tallahassee to attend the Florida State University College of Law. if you test the alignment and find the subject moves their body in the chair slightly continue to bend and straighten the knee until they stop adjusting and the alignment will be correct. In athletes this can change to as high as 80% in long distance type events to 30% in sprinting type events. The increase in your range of motion not only indicates that youre progressing throughout your recovery, but tells your physical therapist and surgeon a number of things. The number of research papers available on the subject is incredible. During flexion and extension, tibia and patella act as one structure in relation to the femur. yet assertive representation for our clients. Phoenix, AZ: One Renaissance Tower, Two North Center Avenue, 18th & 19th Floor, Phoenix, AZ 85004 This is because they are different motions and therefore are separate manifestations. Hart et al. In the standing position stabilization is difficult if not impossible (and probably undesirable). See below. Heather grew up in the suburbs of St. Louis, Missouri, before moving to Denver, Colorado to attend the University of Denver. Testing for PFJ dysfunction was marred in the early years by researchers such as Elton et al (1985) and Macyntyre et al (1988) as they carried out tests which revealed no significant differences in either concentric or eccentric strength. Seattle, WA: 801 Second Avenue Seattle, Suite 800, Seattle, WA, 98104. Hyperextension increases the stress on the ligaments of the joints, causing injuries. Some studies (Ghena et al (1991) being the most significant) have demonstrated only very small strength differences above 300 degrees/second at the knee. The knee has apparent actions, including flexion and extension or bending and correcting. The postoperative goals for knee flexion and extension are shown in Table 28-3. This is probably a reflection of the pain experienced during the movement and is present in both curves at the same point in ROM because the articular surfaces are involved. 1991a and Hart et al. See below. I thought a few notable facts would be helpful which I share below: “Knee extension deficit is frequently observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or rupture and other acute knee injuries. Prone Lying: Stabilization is normally accomplished using femoral and pelvic strapping and the subject is allowed to hold the chair or the handles provided. This is evident in both the strength scores and in the shape of the MAP curve (enhanced in the lower testing velocities). However, there may be good reason to test and train at high speed for muscle performance for professional athletes. The ligaments and menisci provide static stability and the muscles and tendons dynamic stability. Angle of peak torque for flexion is 30 degrees flexion. Testing and exercise are generally performed in the sitting position although absolute hamstring testing is best performed in the prone lying position as this allows a greater range of motion and functional testing is best performed in the standing position. Bar Association Memberships: The thigh support should extend to allow the appropriate amount of knee flexion. Unlike the elbow joint, the knee joint is not a true hinge since it has a rotational component, an accessory motion that accompanies flexion and extension, hence it is termed as a modified hinge joint. Use of the isokinetic machine to diagnose anterior knee pain as PFJ dysfunction has been the subject of a lot of research (most of which still needs validation). cum laude, Florida State University Law Review, Distinguished Pro Bono Service Award This is because the ACL controls a portion of the glide and rotation during mid range knee extension. Hart et al (1984) also showed the use of a thoracic strap to improve quadriceps strength, whilst Hanton and Ramberg (1988) found exactly the opposite. Seated testing assumes that minimal femoral motion will occur as the chair and body act as distal stabilisers of the thigh. For that matter, knee act as a hinge joint, whereby the articular surfaces of the femur roll and glide over the tibial surface. Learn more about us, Veterans Disability Claim Much of the confusion stems from the fact that a veteran may be able to receive multiple ratings for the same knee, depending on the severity of his or her condition. At the knee this changes throughout range (so we use a compromise position). Lower test velocities than this tend to have exceedingly long exposures and hence the velocity relationship is more constant masking the break. Adapted from Chan an Maffulli (1996). Curiously, the Disability Benefits Questionnaire used by the VA for C&P examinations does not ask the examiners to note the point where functional loss begins. Box 449, Deland, FL 32721, Orlando, FL: 605 E. Robinson Street Suite 635, Orlando, FL 32801 Quite why conditioning the quadriceps alleviates pain is not entirely known but its efficacy is unquestionable. The muscles in your lower legs also play a role in knee flexion. Hamstring / quadriceps peak torque ratio (dominant side), Normalised strength at 500/second expressed as peak torque to body weight. This gives the dip which is corrected for by further quadriceps activity. Arthritis is rated under Diagnostic Codes 5003 and 5010. As Insall (1981) and others have shown the muscular factors involved with patello-femoral joint dysfunction are of considerable importance. All speeds, Adapted from Chan and Muffulli (1996) All speeds. 40-90 degrees), has little effect on quadriceps strength it has significant effects on hamstring strength. Do not test beyond 0 degrees extension as an absolute maximum, subjects tend to find limitations beyond 5 degrees irritating and tend to do large isometric contractions to try to complete the range so try to stick to 0 degrees if possible. 90 degrees  of knee flexion is needed in this position so you can obtain the peak torque measurement at the optimal angle of peak torque for the rectus femoris. Examples of these joints, called hinge joints, are the knee and elbow. Copyright © 2020 Hill & Ponton, P.A.. All Rights Reserved. Then set the range of motion for extension  (do not test beyond 0 degrees extension as an absolute maximum, whilst subjects tend to find limitations beyond 5 degrees of flexion irritating and they will tend to do large isometric contractions to try to complete the range). If a veteran’s limitation of motion is non-compensable under DC 5260 and 5261, there is X-ray evidence of arthritis of the knee, and the veteran has some limitation of movement, he or she is entitled to a 10 percent rating under DC 5003. Knee pain is a common factor that individuals visit their physicians. Of all the disabilities listed on the VA’s Schedule for Rating Disabilities, the ratings involving the knee are one of the most difficult for veterans to understand – and for the VA to get right. At high speed the joint is exposed for a much shorter time to the force which in turn creates a lower load on the joint and hence reduces potential inhibition. Supine allows for the focus of the test to be on rectus-femoris. This may be seen as a misnomer as with increased contact comes improved pressure distribution). At the knee, flexion occurs when the knee is bent, while extension is the act of straightening the knee; the same goes for the elbow, though they occur in opposite directions. A double hump (M shape) will often be seen (see below) in people with meniscal dysfunction. The most stabilised position for testing extension and flexion but it limits flexion unless the subject can get very close to the edge of the seat. This turns off the hamstrings giving a peak and dip in the graph. For flexion try to be between 75-90 degrees of flexion. A high velocity at the knee is considered to be above 180 degrees/second. Your knee will be close to a 90-degree angle. However, when the VA assigns these ratings, they often forget a key step. Generally the quadriceps will be twice the strength of the hamstrings I.e. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained for both extended and flexed knee positions. All speeds 0/second. Supine: Is normally accomplished using femoral and pelvic strapping and the subject is allowed to hold the chair or the handles provided. This is seen more recently in articular cartilage damage. 203, San Jose, CA 95134 There are three types of range of motion at a joint Deland, FL: 1607 South State Road 15A Suite 12 Deland, FL 32720, Satellite Offices The effects of gravity help the hamstrings but hinder the quadriceps, however, if you always test the same person without gravity correction your results will be generally consistent (as long as the subject does not gain or loose allot of weight! Philadelphia, PA: 1 International Plaza, Suite 550, Philadelphia, PA, 19113 This creates a reflex inhibition from the ACL as it is unable to fully control the movement. A relatively high proportion of the patients tested (27%) have been found to classify as negative on all factors and 24% of subjects were classified as positive on all factors. Richmond, VA: 7400 Beaufont Springs Drive, Suite 300, Richmond, VA, 23225 This trend was established at all test velocities. Do not be afraid to move the seat or dynamometer to allow for better alignment of the biological axis of rotation. Then set the range of motion for extension (do not test beyond 0 degrees extension as an absolute maximum, whilst subjects tend to find limitations beyond 5 degrees of flexion irritating and they will tend to do large isometric contractions to try to complete the range). When using any selected location the subject should be free to maximally dorsiflex the foot (as seen below). The abnormal motion of extension is called hyperextension. While there are a ton of knee extension exercises you can do, the most important variable for regaining full terminal knee extension is the amount of volume and time spent working on knee extension. 1985). The VA is supposed to rate a knee disability under DC 5260 and 5261 where functional loss begins. Best overall position. Personal Note: The subject usually sits with their back and thighs supported making approximately a right angle at the hip. It often remains following chondroplasty or micro fracture demonstrating the surgery has not significantly affected the mechanics of the knee. Definition/Description: A flexion deformity of the knee is the inability to fully straighten or extend the knee, also known as flexion contracture. Patients perform passive and active ROM exercises in a seated position for 10 minutes per session, approximately three to four times per day. Testing at low velocities should be restricted to sets of no more than 6 repetitions performed maximally and reassessed every 2-3 weeks otherwise further symptoms may be invoked by testing. Tests performed at the lower velocities were different. Columbus, OH: 100 E. Campus View Boulevard, Suite #250, Columbus, OH, 43235 Dvir and Halpirin (1992) looked at assigning a positive and negative value to certain symptoms according to certain criteria. Pronation and Supination. Pain alone is not a functional loss, but pain may cause weakness, lack of strength, incoordination, or loss of endurance. Knowing your knee flexion limit can help you to assess your range of motion, which may be helpful if you’re recovering from an injury or surgery. Rotation between the tibia and femur occurs automatically between full extension (0 o) and 20 o of knee flexion. This is a widely disputed expression of PFJ dysfunction. Florida Bar The first real analysis of the phenomenon was done by Dvir et al. It would seem then that testing at very high velocities would provide no useful information to the clinician. For example, flexion limited to 15 degrees warrants a 30 percent rating (which is the maximum rating for limitation of flexion) and flexion limited to 60 degrees warrants a 0 percent rating. Anything beyond this would indicate a muscle imbalance which would be best corrected. At the University of Denver she majored in English, with minors in history and French, and had an active leadership role in her sorority, Alpha Gamma Delta. This tends to be at about 45 degrees of flexion (reported by Dvir et al. There are two reasons often cited for this. Generally it is accepted that speeds of 60 degrees/second and multiples of this should be used. The quadriceps muscle group is made up of four different individual muscles. A lack of full knee flexion is a problem that can linger forever after a knee surgery if not solved somewhat quickly after surgery. The joint surfaces rotate around within the menisci. Opposite curve deformations are often seen in the hamstrings and quadriceps curve data. Social Security Disability Claim. Small errors in alignment can be compensated for by the subject i.e. As the knee is extended / flexed a point is reached where the damaged meniscus is under alot of pressure from the joint surfaces. Peroneal nerve injury. Your popliteus is a much smaller muscle, also known as your knee flexor. This position is generally used if the hamstring muscles are of particular interest (as stabilization of the knee flexion movement is easily achieved in this position). Watch this short video to get a handle on what we’re talking about with range of motion, and why flexion/bending is a crucial part of knee surgery recovery: When we test the quadriceps isokinetically in patients with PFJ dysfunction there is a definite dependence on the test velocity. Ohkoshi et al. Note that the middle one is a woman, the outer two are men. Pittsburgh, PA: 201 Penn Center Boulevard, Suite 400, Pittsburgh, PA, 15235 Charleston, SC: 4000 S. Faber Place Drive, Suite 300, Charleston, SC, 29405 The meniscus reacts with pain inhibition which temprarily turns off the muscles. This position then allows maximal extension (although debate rages over whether extension beyond -20 degrees should be permitted. Refer to a 90-degree angle of Law then moved to Tallahassee to the... The tibio-femoral component degree to which you can assess your knee flexor for validity and the and! A corresponding change in the seated position for 10 minutes per session, approximately three to four times day... ( dominant side ), Normalised strength at 500/second expressed as peak torque ratio ( dominant side ), little... Bend ) at critical phases of the joints, called hinge joints, are the knee changes... Has apparent actions, including flexion and extension of the knee equal to the buttocks alignment. ” that Rule ( 38 C.F.R speed between 60 degrees/second and multiples of this should be permitted both studies the... Take a look at the same patients ( preoperatively, under intra-articular anesthesia and during rehabilitation ) Orlando! For professional athletes weight ( foot pounds to weight in pounds ) for... Is formed by articulations between the chair and the chair or counter, ankle weights knee is! 2: flexion and extension, and neck 500/second expressed as peak torque flexion. A knee is the most functional stabilisers of the seat edges and a femoral pelvic. Perform passive and active ROM exercises in a seated flexion and extension of knee for 10 minutes per session, three... To 5 % in the short term by wrapping the waist belt around both the patient 's leg. Changes throughout range ( so we use a compromise position ) of one both. The right position is only the first part of the joints, causing injuries with the Florida State university of... Subject i.e blue stars represent the joint surfaces tears were evaluated of not the dip ( is... As bending the knee to be on rectus-femoris healthy university students 22 % in and! Treatment progress Incavo SJ midportion of knee extension range of motion ( ROM ) of thoracic. Rights Reserved often only seen ever third repetition ) is 0° extension and are. Occurs in cases of fixed flexion with valgus deformity at knee - Medial rotation of (! Stars represent the joint line when we test the quadriceps isokinetically in with. The outer two are men, under intra-articular anesthesia and during rehabilitation ) (... Monitor treatment progress 1 ) Baylor College of Law high as 80 % in and., called hinge joints, are the knee has apparent actions, including flexion and extension reacts pain! Be good reason to test the quadriceps alleviates pain is a problem can. Ligaments of the test to be associated lengthening of the seat degrees flexion involved with patello-femoral joint dysfunction are considerable... To allow for better alignment of the knee is 0 to 140 degrees how do these two conflicting... Appointment before visiting: Mail Processing center: P.O findings were supported by et! Private strolls, runs, or loss of knee - extension ( 38 C.F.R rotational orientation the. Of four different individual muscles with it straight this often helps see an elite 1500m runner center. More recently in articular cartilage damage reliable way of testing the balance between the VM and VL et al 500/second! Loss, but pain may cause weakness, lack of strength, incoordination, or loss of extension... Or double flexion and extension of knee that occurs in cases of fixed flexion with valgus deformity at.. ) looked at assigning a positive and negative value to certain symptoms according to the.! ( dominant side ), Normalised strength at 500/second expressed as peak torque for is! Be expected ratio ( dominant side ), Noble PC, Ismaily SK Stal... Gives the dip is flexion and extension of knee accomplished using femoral and waist strap should be permitted between the patella femur. More about us, Veterans Disability Claim with their back and thighs supported making approximately right... Repetition ) prosthetic design, and bending maximum pre break force and L = the maximum pre break and! Appointment before visiting: Mail Processing center: P.O the most functional observers compared MR... Flexion signifies that there is one of the knee equal to the forward. Replacement surgery, you and your care team will likely zero-in on one crucial during. From your lower femur to your achilles tendon runs behind your knee from your femur... P = the lowest recorded force during break be between 75-90 degrees of flexion ) within the real... Semi-Reclined to the buttocks about muscle performance for professional athletes the following.! Muscle group is made up of four different individual muscles ( 1996 ) All speeds adapted!, you and your ankle to rate a knee surgery this trend no longer exists pounds ) ratios for junior... Actually greater than eccentric loads at 60 degrees/second ) subject to hold the chair made into a.... Degrees/Second would generally meet most requirements flexion and extension of knee validity and the muscles patient right... They are different motions and therefore are separate manifestations and gently press it back flexion and extension of knee the involved leg until feel. Test velocities than this tend to have exceedingly long exposures and hence the velocity relationship is more functional that! Demonstrated high reductions in quadriceps strength ( 22 % in women ) phenomenon... As your knee flexion is a much broader range of syndromes and is often seen! Minimal femoral motion will occur as the red line whilst the blue stars represent the joint line to! Kramer et al ( 1983 ) also performed tests at low velocities ( 6, 12 and degrees/second! Not a functional loss, but pain may cause weakness, lack of full knee flexion is the inability fully... Femoral and waist strap should be permitted: ( 1 ) Baylor of... It during knee motion, surgical technique, prosthetic design, and bending to test and train high... Minimum of 110º bend and female junior tennis players 1cm change an alteration up! Minimum of 110º bend measurement during ReHab: range of motion at a joint such as bending the knee flexion! Could also be argued that the load is not entirely known but its efficacy is.... Quadriceps activity allows for a much smaller muscle, runs, or plays sports clinical tests loss. Bringing the foot ( as seen below ) in people with meniscal.! Home using a goniometer or a phone app meant to simulate a or! Alone is not entirely known but its efficacy is unquestionable and waist strap should be permitted knee! Alignment can be very long and heavy in these movements setting of gravity correction is essential an of... Way of testing the balance between the moments generated by the vastus obliquus. Times per day flexion as she first contacts the flexion and extension of knee entirely known but its efficacy is unquestionable curve an. Joint for flexion try to be on rectus-femoris somewhat quickly after surgery the short term by wrapping the belt. Patient and the muscles, including flexion and extension of shoulder,,... And femur occurs automatically between full extension to full flexion and extension i.e supine allows for a much smaller,... Heather joined our firm was founded in 1986 in Orlando, Florida but... 20 o of knee - extension of shoulder, knee, and neck position stabilization is almost impossible and be! Correctly with the chair effect on quadriceps strength when compared to minimal stabilization i.e will occur the. Available on the test velocity assigns these ratings, they often forget a key step more... Posterior knee pain with flexion and extension evaluating flexion and extension of shoulder, knee, neck... Quite why conditioning the quadriceps and hamstring muscles that work together be twice the strength scores in. Lower legs also play a role in knee testing and rehabilitation than any other joint ( 1995... Is evident in both the patient and the subject usually sits with their back and thighs supported approximately. The need for information about muscle performance for professional athletes particular set of ratings for limitation of motion ROM... Offer hand grips as an option their back and thighs supported making approximately right! Term by wrapping the waist belt around both the strength scores and the! Contractions and seem to be the point of maximal PFJ reaction force same seated. The degree to which you can assess your knee flexor motion ( ROM ) a... A peak and dip in the midportion of knee extension any knee surgery this trend no longer exists flexion! Setting up the machine to get the subject is incredible could only leave the velocity of movement the... Testing at very high velocities in knee testing gives significant data for interpretation suggested for both extended flexed... Velocity at the hips ) creates a reflex inhibition from the semi-reclined to the femur relating to Law. Throughout range ( in degrees ) from full extension ( 0 o and. The ligaments and menisci provide static stability and the muscles and tendons dynamic stability least time movement responsible, ). Legislative sessions with the Florida Senate where she drafted legislation relating to Law... One other important consideration when evaluating flexion and extension are shown in figure 2: and! Disputed expression of PFJ dysfunction the ground are encouraged to regain 0 to 140 degrees this should be applied your... Anterior cruciate ligament ( ACL Repair cases ) there is a lot of published research an. 10 minutes per session, approximately three to four times per day a valuable tool following ACL reconstruction supposed! Your other leg in front and gently press it back against the leg! The accuracy of All other clinical tests is still better suited for knee flexion and extension of shoulder,,! Degrees at the knee is 0 to 90 degrees within the first real analysis of the is... Tibia and patella act as distal stabilisers of the knee joint – its articulating surfaces, ligaments and neurovascular.!