The giant centipede S. gigantean … 5:50AM the rain abruptly came to a stop, 6AM and I'm. Methods. The protein level of NF-B in the group treated with SSM after LPS induction was decreased at high SSM concentrations. In particular, peripheral nerve impairment induces hyperalgesia and allodynia. Based on these results, SSM was used at concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL in subsequent experiments. Briefly, dried weight of 128.6 g SSM powder is stirred with 1000 ml of distilled water for 3 h. After precipitation in the refrigeration, the extraction solution is filtered and the filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure at 70°C for 3 h using a rotary vacuum evaporator. 0000017326 00000 n Furthermore, Scolopendra and Scorpio treatment downregulates TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 expression via T lymphocyte regulation in patients with rheumatic arthritis [17]. [13] and the method provided by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Furthermore, research into SSM has been shown to consist of peptides with potential to be developed as effective anti-inflammatory analgesics [9]. SNCI markedly increased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 at the site of injury in the sciatic nerve compared to the sham operation group (Figure 7(a)). and Scolopendra spp. All procedures were performed in accordance with the Guidelines for the Care and Use of Animals approved by the National Institutes of Health Council for the Management and Use of Laboratory Animals. Previous report suggested that neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury was associated with upregulation of sciatic TNF-α and IL-6 expression [32, 33]. Moreover, pathophysiological features of inflammation involve that a various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediators, and cytokines were produced by neuronal inflammatory responses [4, 5]. The bite of the Vietnamese Scolopendra subspinipes, having a body length of 20 cm, leaves the wound to 1.5 cm in diameter and 5 mm in depth. Photoelectric cells automatically shut off the heat source when reflected rays are blocked. The whole amount is filtered and freeze-dried for 200 h in a freezing dryer. Conclusions. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans is known for harbouring little aggression to other centipedes, a … Bands were quantified using Molecular Analyst™ version 1.4.1 (Bio-Rad). on the road. 0000019077 00000 n Induction of SNCI significantly decreased the PWL compared to the sham operation group. Information. These results indicate that SSM treatment significantly increases IBα protein expression and NF-B protein expression in LPS-induced cells. Kim, D.-H. Park, Y. Jang, and K.-H. Chung, “Purification and molecular cloning of a novel serine protease from the centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans,”, J. Ruland, “Return to homeostasis: downregulation of NF-, K. Verhelst, I. Carpentier, and R. Beyaert, “Regulation of TNF-induced NF-, S. C. Coelho, A. L. Bastos-Pereira, D. Fraga, J. G. Chichorro, and A. R. Zampronio, “Etanercept reduces thermal and mechanical orofacial hyperalgesia following inflammation and neuropathic injury,”, C. Li, B. U. Ji, J. E. Lee et al., “Inhibitory Effects of Scolopendra Pharmacopuncture on the Development and Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Possible Involvement of Spinal Glial Cells,”, M. Cai, S.-M. Choi, B. K. Song, I. The English summary appended to the paper is as follows: - " New-Guinean species of the giant centipede often inflict painful bites. 0000007707 00000 n We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. "Most human centipede bites," said Jerome Goddard in his Physician's Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, "result when a centipede is stepped on, picked up, o… Although SSM shows anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticonvulsant activities, its diverse mechanisms of action remain unclear. The experimental design was approved by the Institutional Care and Use Committee of Kyung Hee University (KHUASP[SE]-17-094). A 33-year-old man was admitted because of acute edema involving the right hand . Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans(SSM) is utilized in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as cancer, apoplexy, and epilepsy. Several studies have suggested that Arg561-Val562 peptide binding of SSM component may be effective for inducing fibrinolytic activity or anti-inflammatory effects [9, 35]. Thus, SSM treatment may reduce inflammatory factors via the NF-B pathway in cells as well as in animal models. Therefore, we used a dosage of 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg SSM in this study. Our experiments showed that NO and PGE2 concentrations were increased when the inflammatory response of the cultured cells was induced by LPS and significantly decreased by SSM treatment. Centipede bites do not appear to be tallied in the U. S., although they likely occur most often in the southern and southwestern parts of the country, where the larger species occur. Cell lysates were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE gel and electrotransferred onto nitrocellulose membranes (Amersham). 0000012336 00000 n It will also bite to defend itself if it is attacked. The PGE2 and NO production were suppressed by SSM. Briefly, 100 μL supernatant and 50 μL N1 buffer were added to each well, followed by incubation at room temperature for 10 min. Each year, a significant number of cases are evaluated in emergencies due to centipede bites. Both patients were bitten on the hand. [29] suggested that SSM inhibited mRNA expression and arachidonic acid-metabolizing COX-2, CYP4A, and PGE2 production in tumor-associated macrophages. If large individuals are able to leave a significant mark, then small representatives will not even be able to bite through human skin. Our results suggest that SSM suppresses the production of inflammatory factors via the NF-B pathway and accelerates the morphological and functional recovery of the peripheral nervous system. In addition, the expression levels of inflammation-related factors iNOS and COX-2 were also increased by SNCI (Figure 7(b)). Membranes were agitated in 5% skim-milk blocking buffer for 1 h and reacted at 4°C overnight with the primary antibody: mouse anti-β-actin or rabbit anti-iNOS, anti-NF-B, anti-IBα or goat anti-COX-2, anti-TNF-α, and anti-IL-6 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA). 0000008973 00000 n 0000041706 00000 n In behavioral studies, SSM treatment enhanced the SFI and improved the thermal sensitivity test results. to greet me, soon we were in their dinning area. 0000013007 00000 n Then N2 buffer was added and reacted at room temperature for 10 min. 0000002147 00000 n Skolopendra does not attack the person herself, but bites as self-defense. Of the bites, 57% occurred indoors and 50% at night. Thermal hyperalgesia was measured using the plantar test and is represented as the paw withdrawal latency (PWL) (Figure 5(c)). trailer << /Size 50 /Info 14 0 R /Root 18 0 R /Prev 133007 /ID[<69926303e26892d7022ecf6446573c9a>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 18 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 16 0 R /Metadata 15 0 R /PageLabels 13 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /S 57 /L 143 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 49 0 R >> stream As 35 of the patients had a scolopendra bite for the first time in their lives we can not discuss a true anaphylaxis. We observed the anti-inflammatory effects of SSM treatment both in vitro and in vivo. 53 (7):869-72. . 0000001932 00000 n What does scolopendra bite look like. Our results showed that locomotor activity due to nerve damage is improved by treatment with SSM in SFI tests. 0000001494 00000 n The mean SFI for each group was calculated on day 1 before and 1, 5, 7, and 9 after surgery. Veraldi S, Cuka E, Gaiani F. Scolopendra bites: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Longitudinal sections 20 μm thick were cut using a cryostat (Leica, Nussloch, Germany). The results presented here suggest that SSM treatment may be effective for restoring sensory function and motor ability in animals following sciatic nerve injury through inhibition of inflammation. 17 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 19 /H [ 1100 240 ] /L 133475 /E 91449 /N 4 /T 133017 >> endobj xref 17 33 0000000016 00000 n Although centipede bites occur rather frequently and regularly around the world, there are only three reported deaths. SSM was purchased from the Korean Pharmacupuncture Institute (Seoul, Korea). Within 2 hours the limb is doubled, the effects of the toxin are similar to that of the viper. Like the scorpion, it can lift its tail and its pincer-like claws on one end can deliver a very painful bite which can cause inflammation and pain in the affected limb. The sciatic nerves were dissected and immediately immersed in a solution consisting of 4% paraformaldehyde in 100 mM PBS overnight. These results suggest that SSM may inhibit NF-кB activation by attenuating the phosphorylation of IBα and the translocation of the p50 and p65 subunits of NF-B from the cytosol to the nucleus in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. A previous study suggested that SSM inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38, and NF-B in pancreatitis by inhibiting HMGB-1 [16]. The cut-off time was set as 35 sec based on the latency in the sham operation group. [18]. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Mama comes running through the old rusty gate . Aliquots of 30 μg protein lysate were subjected to western blotting analyses by conventional SDS-PAGE with an electrophoresis apparatus (Bio-Rad). For rats in the SSM-treated groups, the appropriate dosage of SSM (with 200 μL 0.9% normal saline) was injected at the greater trochanter and anterior superior iliac spine in the hind leg at the midpoint of the connection once a day for 7 consecutive days, starting 3 days after surgery. 0000008653 00000 n 2-5. Jo, G.-S. Bae, K.-C. Park et al., “, D.-Y. We confirmed that LPS stimulated cells and led to changes in inflammatory factors and experimentally confirmed that SSM treatment affected IBα and NF-B expression in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Interpolation of identical values of IT, PL, and TS from the right and left hind feet results in an SFI value close to 0 in normal rats, whereas an SFI value of –100 represents impairment. After surgery, the values of all operation groups dropped to close to -100 and changed slowly throughout the experiment. Background. For cryoprotection, fixed tissue was immersed in a solution consisting of 30% sucrose in PBS. SNCI was induced according to a previously described surgical procedure [15]. Seo, C.-J. In the above-mentioned cases the inflammation returned for a short time after about a week. The tissue slides were incubated overnight at 4°C with primary antibody to neurofilament protein (NF-200; Sigma). Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. In the present study, we examined neurological and behavioral changes associated with neurological damage in SNCI models treated with SSM. Therefore, treatment with SSM in neuropathic lesions appears to have a beneficial effect on neuropathic pain by modulating inflammatory factors and improving hyperalgesia and locomotor performance. The following parameters were obtained from the footprints: distance from the second to the fourth toe (intermediary toe spread, IT); distance from the heel to the top of the third toe (print length, PL); and distance between the first and the fifth toe (toe spread, TS). Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea, Kohwang Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 05278, Republic of Korea, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, S. Dodoala, S. Sampathi, P. Punuru, G. Chinta, and S. Kanyadhara, “Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain,”, K. Temporin, H. Tanaka, Y. Kuroda et al., “Interleukin-1 beta promotes sensory nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury,”, X. Feng and W. Yuan, “Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats,”, P. C. Konturek, T. Brzozowski, M. 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