The best known natural enemies of apple snails in general are vertebrates. Buenos Aires is one the coldest areas in the native range of the species, with average temperatures of 4-6 °C in the coldest months. (2004a) found that apple snail herbivory contributed to a shift in alternative stable states of a lake from a clear to a turbid condition. Establishment of the invasive island apple snail Pomacea insularum (gastropoda: ampullariidae) and eradication efforts in Mobile, Alabama, US. Personal communication. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. As for any invasive species, early detection, prompt eradication and strong regulation of transport are the best defenses against introduction and establishment of P. maculata as an alien invasive species. The southernmost latitude at which it occurs appears to be near Buenos Aires, Argentina (Hayes et al., 2012; Byers et al., 2013). Common name: SPOTTED APPLESNAIL. Research by Savaya-Alkalay et al. Pink eggs and snails: field oviposition patterns of an invasive snail, Pomacea insularum, indicate a preference for an invasive macrophyte. Red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) may prey on eggs or hatchlings but ongoing research demonstrates limited consumption (R Burks, South Western University, Texas, USA, unpublished). Biology, systematics, life cycle, and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the cause of rat lungworm disease. Gettys et al. In: Global advances in ecology and management of golden apple snails [ed. Gainesville, Florida. Patterns of consumption did not differ among size classes or across a range of temperatures (20-35 °C). Waterbirds, 35(2):347-351, Preap V, Chanty P, Bunnarith K, Hin K, 2006. Biological Invasions, 11:1963-1972, Simberloff D, Holle BVon, 1999. Burks, and J.J. Hand. At ph 3.5, 20% survived the full 28 days, while at ph values of 5.5-9 all but 0-2 snails out of 15-20 survived. Denson, D. Personal communication. 2):83-86. http://www.hjmph.org/HJMPH_Jun13Suppl2.pdf, Yin YouPing, Jiang Hui, Guo DiJin, Wang ZhongKong, 2006. London, UK: Earthscan, 207-217, Cowie RH, Hayes KA, Thiengo SC, 2006. Even without water stress, not all clutches hatch fully and some fail to hatch at all, perhaps indicating incomplete fertilization. Although usually confined initially to aquaculture facilities, the snails either escape or are deliberately released into agricultural or natural wetlands. Knott, and P.R. Kinsley-Smith. As much of the literature on invasive apple snails in Asia has not distinguished P. maculata from P. canaliculata and because the latter seems more widespread in the region, it is difficult to draw inferences specifically regarding P. maculata. Apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea bridgesi, Pomacea paludosa, and Pila conica) Ampullariidae. In a similar study to that of Burlakova et al. Differences in shell morphology are most notable in newly hatched juveniles. in areas already invaded. However, when P. insularum was synonymized with P. maculata by Hayes et al. Freshwater Biology, 49(10):1269-1279, Carlsson NOL, Brönmark C, 2006. Common Name Scientific Name Status; Giant African Land Snail. The differences were attributed to the survivorship of hatchlings and young juvenile snails, as the peak in population followed the mating season. Additional confusion has also arisen because some of these names have been used for more than one species of ampullariid; for instance, ‘golden snail’ and ‘mystery snail’ have been used primarily for orange/yellow varieties of both P. canaliculata and P. diffusa (the latter often misidentified as P. bridgesii), notably in the aquarium trade, in some cases without realizing that they are different species, or without being able to distinguish them, or simply misidentifying them (see Cowie et al., 2006). Pomacea maculata Perry, 1810 previously known as Pomacea insularum. Out of South America: multiple origins of non-native apple snails in Asia. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Gulf of Mexico Science, 1(2):30-38, Martin CW, Valentine JF, 2014. Eggs or hatchlings can be accidentally introduced to new locations as P. maculata females will lay clutches on any hard surface, including boats (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2012). Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Wada, 1997; Cheng and Kao, 2006; Preap, 2006; Wada, 2006; Yang et al., 2006; Yin et al., 2006), although in parts of southern China P. canaliculata became a popular delicacy, eaten raw (Cowie, 2013a; Yang et al., 2013), and is now widespread (Lv et al., 2011). Can reach 155 mm in shell height (Pain, 1960). Golden apple snail. The most northern latitude at which P. maculata populations occur is the Ebro River delta in Spain (EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2012; Horgan et al., 2012; Andre and Lopez, 2013), where it has been introduced. Byers et al. 'Snail Busters' apple snail trap as deployed in shallow water. Color can range from pale to darker olive green often with a faint dark band. The entire genome of P. maculata has not been sequenced or examined comprehensively. Pomacea maculata was initially identified in the USA as P. insularum by Rawlings et al. We are working to provide illustrated descriptions, ecological information, distribution, habitat, history, reproduction, management approaches, and other useful information about the species listed. The species was established in Texas by 1989, in Florida by the mid to late 1990s and in Georgia by 2005 (Rawlings et al., 2007) and continues to spread (Byers et al., 2013). New type material — neotype ( Hayes et al . There are four species of Pomaceain Florida, one of which is native and considered beneficial (Capinera and White 2011). Reported : Island Applesnail. Barnes, M.A., R.K. Fordham, R.L. In: Molluscan Research, 3 (1) 1-5. Golden apple snail: its occurrence and importance in Suriname's rice ecosystem. Taxonomy Hayes et al. Yet it is still possible that these snails could have been P. maculata. In Florida, initial control efforts in Wellman’s Pond focused on hand collection of snails but this proved extremely time consuming and ineffective. (2017) found that a predator of. Biological Invasions 20:137–149. 10, Cowie RH, 1997. Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health. The proteins of P. maculata and P. canaliculata do however differ in their spectral properties, which may be another character that would help to distinguish the two species (Pasquevich et al., 2014). by Joshi, R. C.\Sebastian, L. S.]. For professional researchers, because of the anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations of apple snails, the group in general provides a powerful model for addressing a number of ecological and evolutionary questions (Hayes et al., 2009b). At 20 and 25°C and >95% RH these small snails survived the duration of the experiment (308 days). congeneric species by relying on common names rather than the scientific names (Hayes et al., 2009a; 2012). Size-dependent effects of an invasive herbivorous snail (Pomacea canaliculata) on macrophytes and periphyton in Asian wetlands. Pomacea maculata Pomacea maculata. Hayes et al., 2009b; Matsukkura et al., 2013). The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States. Larger snails survived longer than smaller snails. Among environmental factors, Ramakrishnan (2007) examined tolerance to salinity, pH and temperature. It is native to South America from Uruguay, Paraguay, and the bordering areas of Brazil and Argentina, north to the Amazon River. (2011) demonstrated that a 10 g P. maculata from non-native populations in Texas consumed approximately 3.5 g of live plant material per day with more Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) consumed than wild taro (Colocasia esculenta) and more taro than water hyacinth. P. maculata in the southeastern USA was probably introduced via the aquarium trade (Karatayev et al., 2009; Martin et al., 2012). Naylor, 1996; Teo, 2004). The United States Department of Agriculture Plant Protection and Quarantine Division (USDA-APHIS-PPQ) restricts the possession of most members of the genus Pomacea and requires a permit for their use in research or interstate transport (USDA-APHIS, 2013). 7 (97), (26 June 2007). The mantle cavity is deep and broad, occupying a third to half of the body whorl. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Pomacea maculata are found here. Population dynamics of an established reproducing population of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum) in suburban southeast Houston, Texas. Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown? 2):11-14. http://www.hjmph.org/HJMPH_Jun13Suppl2.pdf, Teo SS, 2004. Non indigenous land and freshwater gastropods in Israel. Malacologia, 47(1/2):397 pp, Britton DK, McMahon RF, 2005. Matsukura K, Okuda M, Cazzaniga N J, Wada T, 2013. http://www.issg.org/pdf/publications/worst_100/english_100_worst.pdf, Lv Shan, Zhang Yi, Steinmann P, Yang GuoJing, Yang Kun, Zhou XiaoNong, Utzinger J, 2011. Diversity and Distributions 14(4):701-712. The shoulder of the whorls is angulate. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Applesnails are known agricultural pests, feeding on rice crops and causing great economic damage (Cowie, 2002; Hayes et al., 2008). Other Pomacea species are similar, e.g., Pomacea maculata.. Distribution. The role of the proteinase inhibitor ovorubin in apple snail eggs resembles plant embryo defense against predation. In: Global advances in ecology and management of golden apple snails [ed. Florida Dept. The two species are extremely similar, and differences in size and subtle qualitative differences in shell shape fall within the range of individual variation, making them very difficult to distinguish morphologically (Hayes et al., 2012). Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Tolerance to low temperature and desiccation in two invasive apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata and P. maculata (Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae), collected in their original distribution area (Northern and Central Argentina). In the aquarium trade, particularly in the USA, stores receive freshwater snails from multiple sources and no mechanisms exist to verify the identity of the snails (Karatayev et al., 2009). In particular, P. maculata can be distinguished from P. canaliculata on the basis of the position and number of glands on the penial sheath, P. canaliculata having two distinctive areas of glandular tissue in the apical penial sheath gland, and P. maculata lacking a medial sheath gland but possessing a basal sheath gland (Hayes et al., 2012, 2015). P. maculata showed a lower range of consumption (between 10 % and 34 %) on a second subset of plants (Alternanthera philoxeroides, Sagittaria graminea, Panicum hemitomon, Scirpus maritimus, Canna glauca, Pontederia cordata, S. californicus,). (2008) measured consumption rates of six size classes of P. maculata when presented with seven submerged macrophytes simultaneously. Shell morphology, reproductive anatomy and genetic patterns of three species of apple snails of the genus Pomacea in Thailand. While some people might see this as an environmental service, apple snails such as P. maculata that feed relatively indiscriminately on a wide range of macrophytes will have negative impacts on native and desirable vegetation and the animals associated with them (Robins, 1971; Simberloff and Stiling 1996; Cowie, 2002). Depending on the density of the population and the availability of resources, traps may be deployed for longer periods with the added security of a grate. (d) grey color eventually yields to white when the clutch will soon hatch. Diverse gastropod hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, globally and with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands. Exotic from South America. Prior to the work of Cowie et al. However, sequences of a portion of a single nuclear marker (EF1-a) from a few individuals of both species found in sympatry indicated possible hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting at this locus (Hayes et al., 2013; Matsukura et al., 2013). In Asia, ‘Golden apple snail’ is the most widely used common name for Pomacea snails from South America because of their often yellowish shell and their commercial value (Cowie et al., 2006). http://www.iucnredlist.org/, Joshi RC, Sebastian LC, 2006. Wetland restoration and invasive species: apple snail (Pomacea insularum) feeding on native and invasive aquatic plants. North America) and those found within their native range (i.e. Baited with a proprietary blend of food resources, the trap attracts snails, which enter, but the shape of the trap makes it more difficult for them to exit. The large amount of research on basic ampullariid biology that has been undertaken since around the year 2000 has now been reviewed by Hayes et al. Adult and juvenile P. maculata both consume aquatic macrophytes. 4.313 . The primary pathways of intentional introduction by people have been the aquaculture industry and the aquarium trade (Cowie, 2002; Cowie and Hayes, 2012). 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